In class, we have been discussing ideas presented in the book, History is in the Land: Multivocal Tribal Traditions in Arizona’s San Pedro Valley by T. J. Ferguson and Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonh (2006, University of Arizona Press). The authors put forth a definition of what time and space equal when dealing with the culture and history of the Native Americans who have resided in the San Pedro Valley for thousands of years. Time and space are very different from each other, but together can be grouped into three broad categories: absolute, relational, and representational.
These three groups of time and space can not only be applied to the valleys of Arizona, but can also be applied when discussing the cultural landscape of the town of Gettysburg, PA.
First it might be helpful to define what absolute, relational, and representational time and space are. After much discussion between our group, we collaborated on the similarities and differences of the three.
Absolute time is best defined as a measured amount of time, like an hour, day, week, or year. Absolute time is linear, and does not stop, but is limited with boundaries. When dealing with Gettysburg, PA, absolute time could be the year of 1786, the year in which Gettysburg was first settled (http://www.gettysburg-pa.gov). Absolute space deals with physical location, defined by geographic features of the landscape. Like absolute time, absolute space can also be measured. The fact that Gettysburg, PA is 159 meters above sea level (http://www.maps-streetview.com/United-States/Gettysburg/), or that it is 1.7 square miles in area, are all examples of the town’s absolute space (ftp://ftp.dot.state.pa.us/public/pdf/BPR_pdf_files/Maps/Type5/01407.pdf).
Relational time and space are slightly different. Relational time is not linear, but can be represented by events that are notable to an area or a person of the area. For instance, the time in which the railroad was being built through the town is relational. Without years, it was a period important to the people who lived in the town at the time. Relational space has its own meaning as well. Maps of the town of Gettysburg can be relational, there could be maps that deal with the history of a certain time, and include locations like the railroad tracks or the train station. There could be maps that deal with industry, showing places like restaurants and shopping centers.
The third group of time and space is representational. Representational time is best defined as a period of time not known for its place on the linear plane, but for its symbolism of history or culture. In Gettysburg, representational time could be the 1863 battle, or the time when President Abraham Lincoln gave his Gettysburg Address in the National Cemetery. Representational space, likewise, represents a symbol of great importance that helps define the town. An example of that in Gettysburg could be the David Wills House or the Jennie Wade House, both destinations for tourism that are famous in the town because of their role in the history of Gettysburg.
All three groups of time and space are important to understanding the cultural landscape that we know as Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.